WarpPLS

Nonlinear structural equation modeling made easy

© ScriptWarp Systems


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 *** PLS Applications Symposium; 15 - 18 April 2015; Laredo, Texas ***


Description

Current stable version: 4.0 (released 2013).

Previous stable version: 3.0 (released 2012).

Original version: 1.0 (released 2009).

Main features:

   - Powerful PLS-based structural equation modeling (SEM) software. 

   - Very easy to use, with a step-by-step user interface guide.

   - Identifies nonlinear relationships, and estimates path coefficients accordingly.

   - Also models linear relationships, using standard PLS algorithms.

   - Models reflective and formative variables, as well as moderating effects.

   - Calculates P values, model fit and quality indices, and full collinearity coefficients.

   - Calculates effect sizes and Q-squared predictive validity coefficients.

   - Calculates indirect effects for paths with 2, 3 etc. segments; as well as total effects.

   - Calculates several causality assessment coefficients. 

   - Provides a number of graphs, including zoomed 2D graphs, and 3D graphs.

   

Free trial

WarpPLS is available as a self-installing .exe file. These trial versions, valid for 3 months, are full implementations of the software, not demo versions. They are being used on various platforms, the most stable of which seem to be Windows (2000, XP, 7 and 8). Non-Windows users (e.g., Mac OS X and Linux users) are advised to create a Windows partition on their computers using virtualization software, of which one of the most popular is VMWare, and install WarpPLS on that Windows partition.

 

Please read the instructions below carefully, particularly those related to the MATLAB Compiler Runtime. Additional installation details and discussions, as well uninstallation instructions, are available from the User Manual, linked below. In most cases, previous versions of WarpPLS and of the MATLAB Compiler Runtime may be retained on a user’s computer. Different versions of WarpPLS and of the MATLAB Compiler Runtime generally do not interfere with one other.

Current stable version: 4.0

- WarpPLS 2.0-3.0 users. These instructions are for users who have WarpPLS 2.0-3.0 (any version within this range) installed on their computers. Download self-installing .exe file (about 250 KB) from one of the following mirror sites: Dropbox.com, and Southeastern USA. This file is small because you do not have to reinstall the MATLAB Compiler Runtime 7.14, which is not included in this installation file.

 

- WarpPLS 1.0 users and new users. These instructions are for users who have only WarpPLS 1.0 installed on their computers, or who do not have WarpPLS installed on their computers. Download self-installing .exe file (about 170 MB) from one of the following mirror sites: Dropbox.com, Download.com, and Southeastern USA. This file is large because you must install the MATLAB Compiler Runtime 7.14, which is included in this installation file.

Previous stable version: 3.0

- WarpPLS 1.0-2.0 users and new users. Download self-installing .exe file (about 170 MB) from one of the following mirror sites: Southeastern USA, Northeastern USA, and 4shared.com. This file is large because it includes the MATLAB Compiler Runtime 7.14, which should not be reinstalled by WarpPLS 2.0 users; the Runtime option should be unchecked during installation by WarpPLS 2.0 users.

MATLAB Compiler Runtime 7.14

Once you download and run one of the large files above (about 170 MB), two main components are installed. The first is the free-distribution MATLAB Compiler Runtime 7.14, which contains code that enables WarpPLS to run on multiple platforms. The second component is WarpPLS.

 

The MATLAB Compiler Runtime 7.14 is used in versions 2.0-4.0 of WarpPLS. If you already have one of these versions installed on your computer, you should not try to reinstall the Runtime. The same Runtime cannot be installed twice on the same computer.

Register .prj extension

During the installation process you may be able to check or uncheck the option of associating the extension .prj with WarpPLS project files. This option, if checked, allows users to launch WarpPLS automatically by double-clicking on .prj files in Windows Explorer.

Terms of use

The terms of use of WarpPLS are detailed in the latest version of the User Manual, linked below. Unless stated otherwise, these terms of use, as well as any other rights and responsibilities prescribed by law, apply to all versions of WarpPLS currently in use.

 

 

Testimonials

WarpPLS' approach to have indirect effects calculated saves one from the painful steps and time if one is to analyze mediating effects in SPSS. (Chun M. Tang; Senior Lecturer; UCSI University, Malaysia)

I had always liked WarpPLS for its graphic interface, its unique goodness of fit statistics, and its ability to handle nonlinear relationships. This new version is much enhanced with the ability to save the models and graphs in Jpeg files. The ability to read in Excel files directly is also a great enhancement. I also like the new drag-and-drop graphic interface. (Vivek Pandey; Associate Professor; University of Texas at Tyler, USA)

I like the step-by-step design of the main interface; months pass between statistical analysis sessions, and I find it helps me to remember how to get things going. (E. Vance Wilson; Associate Professor; Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA)

I notice many improvements in both usability and functionality. On the usability side, all of the fonts are larger which makes the on-screen output easier to read. Also, the drag and drop functionality helps usability as well. There are a number of added features, that broaden the use of the software vis-à-vis other packages that are available. (Geoffrey S. Hubona; Affiliate Professor; Virginia Commonwealth University, USA)

It handles the missing values quite easily. The analysis results are very well organized and presented. (Xihui "Paul" Zhang; Assistant Professor; University of North Alabama, USA)

Compared to Amos, it is simple to use, no restrictions of having normal dataset, more comprehensive result tables, and it provides P values. I have been reading about and trying to use Amos for about a month now and am still not comfortable with it. With WarpPLS it took me only a couple of hours to play with it and watch a few of the YouTube videos, and I was doing analyses with my data. Very friendly and easy to use! (Ronaldo Parente; Associate Professor; Florida International University, USA)

Overall, really outstanding! (Ryan T. Wright; Assistant Professor; University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA)

Very clear guidance to use (the steps approach). Great that we can read .xls (not possible in SmartPLS). I LOVE the idea of having both beta weights and P values in the same model (something that SmartPLS does not enable). Great to have VIFs; to have square roots of average variances extracted (AVE's) shown on diagonal; and to export factor scores and inter-items correlations. (Camille Grange; Ph.D. Student; University of British Columbia, Canada)

The interface is quite intuitive and easy to follow. I had no problems using the software the first time, even without reading the User Manual. Extensive information produced from data analysis. Neat presentation of the results. (Jun He; Assistant Professor; University of Michigan-Dearborn, USA)

The software is very simple to use, and very comfortable. A most relevant aspect I would like to highlight is the ease of the moderator effects analysis. The graphics are very useful. The presentation of the results is very clear and structured. The option to export the results is very simple and useful. (Cayetano Medina; Professor; University of Seville, Spain)

Easy to use, powerful, the interactions are done for you, and it can perform nonlinear analyses. Overall the software has the best interface of any SEM software. (Lionel P. Robert, Jr.; Assistant Professor; University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, USA)

I really like the fact that you do not need to go elsewhere for the betas, the P values, and the R-squared’s. Additionally, the option of viewing different aspects of the analysis without being overwhelmed with ALL the information is also a positive. The step guidance through building the model reduces the uncertainty of what is next. It definitely has the advantage of showing all the information in one graph. Saving the output in a text file is an advantage I did not find in SmartPLS. (Agustina Cavazos-Garza; Assistant Professor; Texas A&M University - Kingsville, USA)

 

User Manual

Click on one of the links below to download the latest versions of the User Manual for WarpPLS as PDF files. Right-click on a link and choose the option "Save link as ..." to save the User Manual file to a folder on you computer.

Kock, N. (2013). WarpPLS 4.0 User Manual. Laredo, TX: ScriptWarp Systems.

Kock, N. (2012). WarpPLS 3.0 User Manual. Laredo, TX: ScriptWarp Systems.

YouTube videos

Videos with overviews of steps 1 to 5

- SEM Analysis with WarpPLS (all steps) - Open or Create Project File to Save Work with WarpPLS (Step 1) - Read Raw Data Used in SEM Analysis with WarpPLS (Step 2) - Pre-process Data for SEM Analysis with WarpPLS (Step 3) - Define Variables and Links in SEM Model with WarpPLS (Step 4) - Perform SEM Analysis and View Results with WarpPLS (Step 5) -

Videos discussing specific features

- Create and Use Second Order Latent Variables in WarpPLS - Conduct a Moderating Effects Analysis in WarpPLS - View Indirect and Total Effects in WarpPLS - View and Change Settings in WarpPLS - Conduct a Multi-group Analysis with Range Restriction in WarpPLS - Chart Non-standardized Data with WarpPLS - View Nonlinear Relationships in WarpPLS - Warped Paths Become Significant in WarpPLS -

Videos discussing problems and respective solutions

- Isolate Mediating Effects in WarpPLS - Identify and Deal with Outliers in WarpPLSSolve Indicator Problems in WarpPLS - Solve Collinearity Problems in WarpPLS -

Videos discussing domain-specific data analytics applications

- Analyze School District Data with WarpPLS - Analyze School District Data Nonlinearly with WarpPLS - Analyze School District Data Considering a Total Effect with WarpPLS - Analyze Government Corruption Data Considering Moderating Effects with WarpPLS -

 

 

Training

- Online courses are coming up soon.

- The PLS Applications Symposium is a great opportunity to collaboratively learn with audience and presenters about WarpPLS and PLS-SEM in general.

- For customized onsite face-to-face training sessions, as well as customized online training, please contact us for more details.

 

 

Publications

WarpPLS has been used to study a number of topics in a variety of disciplines and fields, including: accounting, anthropology, clinical psychology, ecology, economics, education, global environmental change, epidemiology, evolutionary psychology, exercise physiology, information systems, international business, finance, management, marketing, medicine, nursing, organizational psychology, and sociology. Click on the link below for a Google Scholar list of links to academic publications using or discussing WarpPLS, some of which are available in full text.

 

- Google Scholar list of links to academic publications using or discussing WarpPLS

 

The full text publications below are publicly available on the web, and are also made available here with the goal of timely and wide dissemination of scholarly work. Individuals who decide to use the publications below as a basis for their research, scholarly activities, and/or educational efforts are cautioned against using the publications in ways that abuse and/or violate current laws in connection with the "fair use" of copyrighted material. For example, it is generally prohibited for an individual or organization to obtain financial advantage from the distribution of copyrighted material, if the individual or organization is not the copyright holder.

 

Philosophical and mathematical foundations of WarpPLS

WarpPLS builds on the method of path analysis, developed by the evolutionary biologist Sewall Wright. The publications below address issues related to the philosophical and mathematical foundations of WarpPLS; including issues related to evolutionary biology, numerical calculus, and mathematical statistics.

 

Kock, N. (2014). One-tailed or two-tailed P values in PLS-SEM? Laredo, TX: ScriptWarp Systems.

 

Kock, N. (2011). A mathematical analysis of the evolution of human mate choice traits: Implications for evolutionary psychologists. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 9(3), 219-247.

 

Wright, S. (1934). The method of path coefficients. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 5(3), 161-215.

 

Methodological discussions based on WarpPLS

The publications below address various methodological issues, often through hands-on discussions of statistical tests that can be performed with WarpPLS. In addition to the publications below, see the User Manual, linked above; the full reference is provided.

 

Kock, N. (2014). Using data labels to discover moderating effects in PLS-based structural equation modeling. Laredo, TX: ScriptWarp Systems. 

 

Kock, N. (2014). Advanced mediating effects tests, multi-group analyses, and measurement model assessments in PLS-based SEM. International Journal of e-Collaboration, 10(3), 1-13.

 

Kock, N. (2013). Using WarpPLS in e-collaboration studies: What if I have only one group and one condition?  International Journal of e-Collaboration, 9(3), 1-12.

 

Kock, N., & Lynn, G.S. (2012). Lateral collinearity and misleading results in variance-based SEM: An illustration and recommendations. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 13(7), 546-580.

 

Kock, N., & Verville, J. (2012). Exploring free questionnaire data with anchor variables: An illustration based on a study of IT in healthcare. International Journal of Healthcare Information Systems and Informatics, 7(1), 46-63.

 

Kock, N. (2011), Using WarpPLS in e-collaboration studies: Mediating effects, control and second order variables, and algorithm choices. International Journal of e-Collaboration, 7(3), 1-13.

 

Kock, N. (2011). Using WarpPLS in e-collaboration studies: Descriptive statistics, settings, and key analysis results. International Journal of e-Collaboration, 7(2), 1-18.

 

Kock, N. (2010). Using WarpPLS in e-collaboration studies: An overview of five main analysis steps. International Journal of e-Collaboration, 6(4), 1-11.


Empirical studies employing WarpPLS

WarpPLS has been used in a wide variety of areas. The publications below are a sample that highlights the multidisciplinary reach of the software. Several of these publications are in highly selective refereed journals targeting broad disciplines and specialized fields.

 

Berglund, E., Lytsy, P., & Westerling, R. (2012). Adherence to and beliefs in lipid-lowering medical treatments: A structural equation modeling approach including the necessity-concern framework. Patient Education and Counseling, 91(1), 105-112.

 

Biong, H., & Ulvnes, A.M. (2011). If the supplier's human capital walks away, where would the customer go? Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 18(3), 223-252.

 

Brewer, T.D., Cinner, J.E., Fisher, R., Green, A., & Wilson, S.K. (2012). Market access, population density, and socioeconomic development explain diversity and functional group biomass of coral reef fish assemblages. Global Environmental Change, 22(2), 399-406.

 

Gebauer, J., Kline, D., & He, L. (2011). Password security risk versus effort: An exploratory study on user-perceived risk and the intention to use online applications. Journal of Information Systems Applied Research, 4(2), 52-62.

 

Guo, K.H., Yuan, Y., Archer, N.P., & Connelly, C.E. (2011). Understanding nonmalicious security violations in the workplace: A composite behavior model. Journal of Management Information Systems, 28(2), 203-236.

 

Iconaru, C. (2013). The moderating role of perceived self-efficacy in the context of online buying adoption. Broad Research in Accounting, Negotiation, and Distribution, 4(1), 20-29.

 

Ketkar, S., Kock, N., Parente, R., & Verville, J. (2012). The impact of individualism on buyer-supplier relationship norms, trust and market performance: An analysis of data from Brazil and the U.S.A. International Business Review, 21(5), 782–793.

 

Kim, M.J., Park, C.G., Kim, M., Lee, H., Ahn, Y.-H., Kim, E., Yun, S.-N., & Lee, K.-J. (2012). Quality of nursing doctoral education in Korea: Towards policy development. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(7), 1494-1503.

 

Kock, N., & Chatelain-Jardón, R. (2011). Four guiding principles for research on evolved information processing traits and technology-mediated task performance. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(10), 684-713.

 

Kock, N., & Gaskins, L. (2014). The mediating role of voice and accountability in the relationship between Internet diffusion and government corruption in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. Information Technology for Development, 20(1), 23-43.

 

Kock, N., Verville, J., Danesh, A., & DeLuca, D. (2009). Communication flow orientation in business process modeling and its effect on redesign success: Results from a field study. Decision Support Systems, 46(2), 562-575.

 

Molina, C.M., Moreno, R.R., & Moreno, M.R. (2011). El papel moderador de la cultura en la generación de satisfacción y lealtad. Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, 17(1), 57-73.

 

Orzan, G., Serban, C., Iconaru, C., & Macovei, O.I. (2013). Modeling the impact of online social marketing campaigns on consumers’ environmentally friendly behavior. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, 2(3), 14-21.

 

Schmiedel, T., vom Brocke, J., & Recker, J. (2014). Development and validation of an instrument to measure organizational cultures’ support of business process management. Information & Management, 51(1), 43-56.


Zhang, X., Dhaliwal, J., & Gillenson, M.L. (2010). Organizing software testing for improved quality and satisfaction. Journal of Information Technology Management, 21(4), 1-12.

 

Doctoral dissertations employing WarpPLS

WarpPLS is widely used by doctoral students in universities around the world. Many of these doctoral students are housed in highly ranked departments. The publications below are a sample of doctoral dissertations employing WarpPLS, which are often praised due to the extensive set of outputs provided by the software.

 

Alhayyan, K.N. (2012). Economic culture and trading behaviors in information markets. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

 

Bakay, A. (2012). Trust in peers, supervisor, and top management: A two-country study. Laredo, TX: Texas A&M International University.

 

Garza, V. (2011). Online learning in accounting education: A study of compensatory adaptation. Laredo, TX: Texas A&M International University.

 

Gaskins, L. (2013). The effect of information and communications technology (ICT) diffusion on corruption and transparency (a global study). Laredo, TX: Texas A&M International University.

 

Khanlarian, C.J. (2010). A longitudinal study of web-based homework. Greensboro, NC: University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

 

Mohamadali, N.A. (2012). Exploring new factors and the question of ‘which’ in user acceptance studies of healthcare software. Nottingham, England: The University of Nottingham.

 

Moqbel, M. (2012). The effect of the use of social networking sites in the workplace on job performance. Laredo, TX: Texas A&M International University.

 

Ogara, S.O. (2011). Design for social presence and exploring its mediating effect in mobile data communication services. Denton, TX: University of North Texas.

 

Peroba, T.L.C. (2013). Modelo de avaliação de capital intelectual para os cursos de mestrado profissional em administração: Uma contribuição para a gestão das instituições de ensino superior. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Fundação Getúlio Vargas. (In Portuguese.)

 

Taskin, N. (2011). Flexibility and strategic alignment of enterprise resource planning systems with business strategies: An empirical study. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia.

 

 

Resources (with links to various files)

Right-click on the links and choose the option "Save link as ..." to save the files to a folder on you computer.

 

Excel files with sample datasets

- E-collaboration technologies study dataset. Spreadsheet (.xls file) containing a sample dataset from a study of teams that used e-collaboration technologies to different degrees. The data is based on a real study, but has been modified (e.g., through the addition of error) for pedagogical reasons.

 

- SAT scores study dataset. Spreadsheet (.xls file) containing a sample dataset from a data mining analysis focused on SAT scores in school districts of a state in the USA. The data is based on a real analysis, but has been modified (e.g., through the addition of error) for pedagogical reasons.

 

- E-collaboration moderation simulated dataset. Spreadsheet (.xlsx file) containing a sample dataset with data and data labels illustrating a moderating effect. The data was created based on a Monte Carlo simulation, and is discussed in this publication.

 

Powerpoint files with model templates

- Sample model with hypotheses (.ppt file). This is a sample .ppt file with a model and hypotheses. Users can modify this file and copy and paste the model into their papers.

 

- Sample model with results (.ppt file). This is a sample .ppt file with model results. Specific symbols for path coefficients and R-squared values are used. Users can modify this file and copy and paste the model into their papers.

 

Excel files with formulas

- Mediating effects using the Sobel's standard error method. Spreadsheet (.xls file) with formulas for assessment of mediating effects using Sobel's standard error method, which is discussed in this publication. Mediating effects can be also assessed using the automatic indirect effects calculation feature of WarpPLS. This feature allows for the full assessment of mediating effects of varying levels of complexity.

 

- Multi-group analysis using the pooled and Satterthwaite standard error methods. Spreadsheet (.xls file) with formulas for conducting a multi-group analysis using the pooled and Satterthwaite standard error methods. The basis for comparison are coefficients generated by WarpPLS, including path coefficients and their standard errors. This spreadsheet employs an approach discussed in this publication.

 

 

FAQ (questions and links to answers)

What are the main features that make WarpPLS different from other SEM software, such as PLS-Graph, SmartPLS, Amos and LISREL?

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2009/12/welcome-to-warppls-community.html

Where can I find a quick, 5-minute, overview of WarpPLS?

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2009/12/structural-equation-modeling-made-easy.html

What is the MATLAB Compiler Runtime and how can it cause installation problems?

 

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2010/01/possible-installation-problems-and.html

 

Can I run WarpPLS on a Mac?

 

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2010/01/warppls-running-on-mac-sure.html

 

How can I change the resampling method using in WarpPLS?

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2009/12/change-resampling-method-in-warppls-10.html

How can I view nonlinear relationships in WarpPLS?

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2009/12/view-nonlinear-relationships-in-warppls.html

Do warped paths always increase, and related P values decrease, in WarpPLS?

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2009/12/warped-paths-become-signficant-in.html

How can I solve problems with indicators that load poorly on their latent variables, and that have high cross-loadings, in WarpPLS?

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2009/12/solve-indicators-problems-in-warppls-10.html

Why are pattern cross-loadings so low in WarpPLS?

 

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2010/01/why-are-cross-loadings-so-low-in.html

 

How can I solve latent variable collinearity problems in WarpPLS?

 

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2010/01/solve-colinearity-problems-in-warppls.html

 

How are the model fit indices calculated by WarpPLS?

 

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2010/01/how-are-model-fit-indices-calculated-by.html

 

How is the warping done in WarpPLS?

 

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2010/01/how-is-warping-done-in-warppls-10.html

 

What are the advantages of using WarpPLS for multiple regression analysis?

 

http://warppls.blogspot.com/2010/07/using-warppls-for-multiple-regression.html